Sonata, musical composition for one or more instruments. In the classical sense, the term refers to a work for piano solo or for a string or spiritual instrument with a piano, consisting of several independent parts. The plan of the composite multi-part sonata and the restriction in the use of the term to only solo works were formed in the second half of the 18th century.
The word “sonata” is often also used in the term “sonata form”: in this case it refers not to a multi-part work, but to the formal structure of one part of the sonata. The sonata form is also found in symphonies, concerts, trios, quartets, quintets, even in overtures, etc.
The word “sonata” is derived from the Italian verb “sonara” – “to sound.”
For the first time so began to call their works the Spanish composers of the XVI century. Early sonatas were polyphonic, for example trio sonatas for 3 instruments – violins (or flutes), violas and gamba and harpsichord. When the homophonic style replaced the polyphonic style (the main voice with a bright melody began to play a leading role, and the others Continue reading
Piano mechanics. The sound in the piano is extracted by hammering the strings. With the help of pegs, the strings are pulled onto the resonant deck (in the piano, the deck is in the vertical position, in the pianos – in the horizontal).
For each sound there is a chorus of strings: three for the middle and high ranges, two or one for the lower. Most pianos range from 86 semitones from a subcontract to a octave to 5 octaves (older instruments may be limited to a note of 4 octaves above; you can even find instruments with a wider range).
In the neutral position, the strings, in addition to the last one and a half to two octaves, are in contact with the dampers. When you press the keys, a device of levers, straps and hammers is called a piano mechanic. After pressing, the damper is separated from the corresponding choir of strings so that the string can sound freely, and a hammer studded with a fillet (felt) hits it. Continue reading
French horn (from German Waldhorn – “forest horn”, Italian. Corno, English french horn, French. Cor) – brass wind musical instrument bass-tenor register. It came from a hunting signal horn; it entered the orchestra in the middle of the 17th century. Until the 1830s, like other copper instruments, it had no valves and was a natural instrument with a limited sound scale.
Among its closest neighbors, brass instruments, the horn stands out for its particularly melodious, velvety and warm timbre, and its thoughtfully lyrical sound. Its distant predecessor was a hunting horn, as evidenced by the name itself: translated from German, “horn” means “forest horn”.
Hence, the first impression of the sound of the horn is associated with the boundless distance, nature, forests and fields. But the horn is also characterized by courageous, dramatic colors, they remind of the Continue reading