Sonata, musical composition for one or more instruments. In the classical sense, the term refers to a work for piano solo or for a string or spiritual instrument with a piano, consisting of several independent parts. The plan of the composite multi-part sonata and the restriction in the use of the term to only solo works were formed in the second half of the 18th century.
The word “sonata” is often also used in the term “sonata form”: in this case it refers not to a multi-part work, but to the formal structure of one part of the sonata. The sonata form is also found in symphonies, concerts, trios, quartets, quintets, even in overtures, etc.
The word “sonata” is derived from the Italian verb “sonara” – “to sound.”
For the first time so began to call their works the Spanish composers of the XVI century. Early sonatas were polyphonic, for example trio sonatas for 3 instruments – violins (or flutes), violas and gamba and harpsichord. When the homophonic style replaced the polyphonic style (the main voice with a bright melody began to play a leading role, and the others Continue reading
Jazz (English Jazz) – a form of musical art that arose in the early XX century in the United States as a result of the synthesis of African and European cultures and subsequently received widespread distribution. The characteristic features of the musical language of jazz were originally improvisation, polyrhythmia based on syncopated rhythms, and a unique set of techniques for performing rhythmic textures – swing. Further development of jazz occurred due to the development of new rhythmic and harmonic models by jazz musicians and composers.
The most important characteristics of jazz are the presence in the rhythm, firstly, of a regular pulsation, the so-called “beat,” and secondly, deviations from this pulsation – “swing” (from English – “swing”, “swing”). They originate in the traditions of African music. Swing is one of the expressive means of jazz. In addition to the special expressive role of rhythm, jazz inherited other features of African music: the interpretation of all instruments as percussion, rhythmic; the predominance of conversational intonations in singing and imitation of colloquial speech when playing instruments. The works Continue reading
Piano mechanics. The sound in the piano is extracted by hammering the strings. With the help of pegs, the strings are pulled onto the resonant deck (in the piano, the deck is in the vertical position, in the pianos – in the horizontal).
For each sound there is a chorus of strings: three for the middle and high ranges, two or one for the lower. Most pianos range from 86 semitones from a subcontract to a octave to 5 octaves (older instruments may be limited to a note of 4 octaves above; you can even find instruments with a wider range).
In the neutral position, the strings, in addition to the last one and a half to two octaves, are in contact with the dampers. When you press the keys, a device of levers, straps and hammers is called a piano mechanic. After pressing, the damper is separated from the corresponding choir of strings so that the string can sound freely, and a hammer studded with a fillet (felt) hits it. Continue reading