Sonata, musical composition for one or more instruments. In the classical sense, the term refers to a work for piano solo or for a string or spiritual instrument with a piano, consisting of several independent parts. The plan of the composite multi-part sonata and the restriction in the use of the term to only solo works were formed in the second half of the 18th century.
The word “sonata” is often also used in the term “sonata form”: in this case it refers not to a multi-part work, but to the formal structure of one part of the sonata. The sonata form is also found in symphonies, concerts, trios, quartets, quintets, even in overtures, etc.
The word “sonata” is derived from the Italian verb “sonara” – “to sound.”
For the first time so began to call their works the Spanish composers of the XVI century. Early sonatas were polyphonic, for example trio sonatas for 3 instruments – violins (or flutes), violas and gamba and harpsichord. When the homophonic style replaced the polyphonic style (the main voice with a bright melody began to play a leading role, and the others Continue reading
Symphony (from the Greek. “Consonance”) is a genre of symphonic instrumental music of the many-part canonized form of fundamental worldview content.
A symphony, as a rule, is a composition for an orchestra, consisting, as a rule, of several parts. This is one of the most important genres of European music. In the modern sense, the word “symphony” came into use relatively recently, in the 70s. XVIII century., But it itself is of very ancient origin.
“Symphony” in Greek means “consonance.” In ancient times, the so-called singing of a choir or ensemble in unison, as well as any harmonious, harmonious combination of tones. In the Middle Ages, the word disappeared from use, and its new life began in the Renaissance. But now a different meaning was put Continue reading
Jazz (English Jazz) – a form of musical art that arose in the early XX century in the United States as a result of the synthesis of African and European cultures and subsequently received widespread distribution. The characteristic features of the musical language of jazz were originally improvisation, polyrhythmia based on syncopated rhythms, and a unique set of techniques for performing rhythmic textures – swing. Further development of jazz occurred due to the development of new rhythmic and harmonic models by jazz musicians and composers.
The most important characteristics of jazz are the presence in the rhythm, firstly, of a regular pulsation, the so-called “beat,” and secondly, deviations from this pulsation – “swing” (from English – “swing”, “swing”). They originate in the traditions of African music. Swing is one of the expressive means of jazz. In addition to the special expressive role of rhythm, jazz inherited other features of African music: the interpretation of all instruments as percussion, rhythmic; the predominance of conversational intonations in singing and imitation of colloquial speech when playing instruments. The works Continue reading
Impressionism (French: impressionnisme, from impression – impression), the direction in art of the last third of the XIX – beginning of XX centuries.
The application of the term “impressionism” to music is largely arbitrary – musical impressionism does not constitute a direct analogy to impressionism in painting and does not coincide chronologically with it (its heyday was the 90s of the XIX century and the 1st decade of the XX century).
Impressionism arose in France when a group of artists – C. Monet, C. Pissarro, A. Sis-Lei, E. Degas, O. Renoir and others – made their original paintings at Parisian exhibitions of the 70s. Their art sharply differed from the smooth and faceless works of the then academic painters: the Impressionists left the walls of the workshops for free air, learned to reproduce the play of living colors of nature, the sparkle of sunlight, the colorful highlights on the moving river surface, the motley color of the festive crowd. The painters used a special technique of runaway stains, smears, which seemed erratic near, and at a distance gave rise to a real feeling of a lively play of colors, bizarre overflows of light. The freshness of the instant Continue reading
The history of music believes that the violin in its most perfect form arose in the 16th century. By that time, all bowed instruments operating throughout the Middle Ages were already known. They were arranged in a certain order and scientists of that time knew with greater or lesser probability their entire pedigree. Their number was huge and now there is no need to delve into the depths of this matter.
Violin – a musical instrument (History of the violin)
Violin by A. Stradivarius 1729
Recent researchers have come to the conclusion that the violin is by no means a reduced “viola and gamba.” Moreover, it has been established with sufficient accuracy that both of these types of tools in their device have distinctly different features from each other. All instruments related to the “viola da Continue reading