About the history of the guitar
In the 18th century, guitar performance flourished. In Spain, great attention was paid to guitar. Many schools and teaching aids appeared, of which the Federico Moretti treatise was especially popular.
In the practice of guitar composition and games, original technical methods and forms of variation development took shape. At this time, countless variations and improvisations on the melody of hot, fandango have already entered the repertoire of amateurs and professionals.
The guitar helped a lot in preserving folk dances in Spanish life, which had long been supplanted in aristocratic salons by a minuet (however, minuets in the Spanish spirit also appeared). Hota, segidilla, fandango and the newly emerged bolero spread widely throughout Europe. It was a kind of revenge of Spain for the invasion of foreign influences that grew during the XVIII century.
And yet, the eighteenth century did not leave in the memory of the descendants of the brilliant names, the famous opuses.
This century had the greatest impact on the appearance of the instrument – it was then that the Spanish guitar acquired the sixth string. In that century, its appearance underwent significant changes, it manifested itself most strongly at the turn of the next century, the most bizarre instruments appeared, but most of them became dead-end branches of the evolution of the guitar. In 1773, van Hecke made a twelve-string guitar, which he called “bissex” (twice six).
Abbot Morlane in 1788 in Paris invented a seven-string guitar. Ober de Trois in 1789 constructed a guitar with two vultures and two special string chords. Vienna master Staufer created an eight-string guitar. The London Victoria and Albert Museum houses a guitar on which 32 strings are strung (master Don Rafael Vallejo, 1789).
However, none of these instruments could surpass the six-string guitar, since each experiment generated more inconvenience than advantage. However, similar experiments continued into the next century.
The guitar in the XIX – XX centuries. The nineteenth century is still somewhat deprived of the attention of historians, in terms of its assessment. And if the twentieth century described itself as a century of breakthrough in the field of technology and the implementation of man’s space flight, the previous century marks the era of more significant changes in the history of mankind. It was then, in its second half, that significant changes took place in the worldview of the surrounding world: thanks to new means of communication, mankind became able to quickly perceive everything new – there was a breakdown of dogma, people’s minds began to excite new discoveries in various fields of knowledge.
The beginning advancement of science, a factor without which it is difficult to imagine further progress (including the advent of the Internet), made the 19th century, the century of science. The popularization of knowledge and science in that century was gaining momentum, and at the beginning of the next century, Jules Verne’s novels influenced the young Isaac Albenis so that he, as a boy, boldly embarked on an independent journey, promising various adventures across the ocean, to America. Substantial innovations touched various fields of art, and the glorious 19th century gave guitarists new instrument Adherents who could advance the guitar’s fame far ahead. But the art of some of them blossomed in the next century.
Among the first innovators of the rise of guitar art of the nineteenth century, perhaps, were the Spanish guitarists, brilliant virtuosos – Fernando Sor and Dionisio Aguado. The merit, published in 1825 by “School for the Guitar” by Aguado, and in 1830 by “School for the Guitar” by Sora, is that they contributed to the significant advancement of performing technique, thanks to the widespread introduction of new techniques. This is the barre technique now accepted by all guitarists, providing free use of keys, a new setting of the hand that opens up possibilities for technical improvement (F. Sor) and the use of the nail method of sound extraction (D. Aguado).
In addition, the design of the stand used in modern instruments, on which the lower threshold of the guitar is mounted, with the method of attaching strings that is used today, was invented by Aguado in 1824, this design replaced all types of stands that existed before. And, of course, we must pay tribute to Fernando Sor for creating a new guitar repertoire – according to Andres Segovia, he is the best guitar composer of the XIX century today, there is probably not a single guitarist whose repertoire would not have his compositions. Against the background of these Spanish guitarists, who sometimes performed in a joint duet, the names of Mauro Giuliani and Luigi Legnani somehow fade.