About the flute
Block flute, recorder (longitudinal flute) – a wind instrument, usually made of wood or plastic. It has very little in common with the usual, i.e. transverse flute. The flute is held longitudinally by blowing air into the hole located at the end of the tube. Near this hole, like a device of a whistle, there is an outlet with a face dissecting the air. On the tube itself there are holes closed by fingers to extract various tones. The recorder in “serious” music is not widely distributed, it is mainly used in folk music, and for teaching children.
About Flute (Flute)
The transverse flute is a wind instrument currently manufactured from special metal alloys. It consists of a cylindrical tube open at the bottom and having a small side hole in the upper end part. Air is blown into this side hole, and a sharp edge dissects the air stream at the same hole. The player holds the flute horizontally, which is why it is called transverse, unlike the block flute, which is held like a clarinet during the game.
In addition to the aforementioned two holes, the flute has 11 holes that are closed by valves. Putting your fingers on the valves is called fingering. With all the holes closed, the flute produces the lowest sound. The orchestral flute has a range of three octaves starting from the B-octave. Higher notes are obtained using sounds of a natural scale, extracted from notes in the first octave due to the tightening of the lips (letting air in). Notes sound like they are written, in the key is salt. The low register of the flute is weak, but has a soft, velvety sound; middle and especially upper case is stronger.
About Flute (Flute)
It’s a small flute, the design is similar to a conventional transverse flute, but half as much and sounds an octave higher.
Flute Development History
The oldest form of flute, apparently, is a whistle. Gradually, finger holes were cut through the whistle tubes, turning a simple whistle into a whistle flute, on which it was already possible to play musical works.
The longitudinal flute was known in Egypt five thousand years ago and it remains the main wind instrument in the entire Middle East. A longitudinal flute with 5-6 finger holes and capable of octave blowing provides a complete musical scale, the individual intervals within which can vary, forming different modes by crossing fingers, closing the holes halfway, and changing the direction and strength of breathing.
A transverse flute with 5-6 finger holes was known in China at least 3 thousand years ago, and in India and Japan – more than two thousand years ago. In Europe during the Middle Ages, mainly simple instruments of the whistle type (the predecessors of the block flute and flageolet), as well as the transverse flute, which penetrated into Central Europe from the East through the Balkans, where it still remains the most common folk instrument, were common.
Towards the end of the 17th century, the transverse flute was perfected by French masters, who, in particular, added valves to the six finger holes to produce a complete chromatic scale. With a more expressive sound and high technical capabilities, the transverse flute soon replaced the longitudinal flute (block flute) and by the end of the 18th century took a strong place in the symphony orchestra and instrumental ensembles.
Between 1832 and 1847, Theobald Boehm improved the instrument, which has since changed relatively little. He introduced the following most important innovations:
1) located the thumb holes in accordance with the acoustic principles, and not the convenience of execution;
2) provided the tool with a valve and ring system that helps to close all openings;
3) used a cylindrical channel of old times, but with a parabolic head, which improved intonation and evened out the sound in different registers;
4) switched to the use of metal for the manufacture of instruments, which, compared with a wooden instrument, increased the brilliance of sound.
Flutes were usually made of silver, although some performers still preferred wood; glass and ivory instruments were also popular in the 19th century.