Style is the sum of all the elements and techniques used in music, its “final” look. The concept of style includes harmonic, melodic, polyphonic and rhythmic material, methods of its use, as well as the form, instrumentation and other factors that determine the nature of a musical work, the impression it makes on the listener. Styles are usually classified by composer and by era. For example, we can talk about the “Bach style”, referring to the harmonic, melodic, polyphonic, rhythmic and other material that is characteristic of most of Bach’s works; In comparison with this norm, the features, for example, “Beethoven’s style” are more pronounced. In addition, Bach was one of the largest composers of the 18th century. and in many ways reproduced the norms that were characteristic of other authors of that era, so we can talk about the “18th century style”, meaning “the style of most composers of this time, including Bach”. Continue reading
Rondo (from French rondeau – “circle”, “movement in a circle”) is a musical form in which repeated (at least 3) conducts of the main theme (refrain) alternate with episodes that differ from each other
A – B – A – C – A – … – A
An unchanging main theme – refrain – is like a chorus, side themes – episodes – are, by sense, tunes. The number of episodes can be from two or more (as indicated by points in the scheme). Rondo is an old form. It comes from round dance songs with a refrain, which was repeated without change, and only the verses were updated in the refrain, but not the melody (A B A B1 A B2 A … A). In professional music, this is one of the most common forms. In medieval France, troubadours and trouvers composed rondo in the form of poetry and music. Medieval musical and poetic rondos have a special structure that does not Continue reading
Sonata, musical composition for one or more instruments. In the classical sense, the term refers to a work for piano solo or for a string or spiritual instrument with a piano, consisting of several independent parts. The plan of the composite multi-part sonata and the restriction in the use of the term to only solo works were formed in the second half of the 18th century.
The word “sonata” is often also used in the term “sonata form”: in this case it refers not to a multi-part work, but to the formal structure of one part of the sonata. The sonata form is also found in symphonies, concerts, trios, quartets, quintets, even in overtures, etc.
The word “sonata” is derived from the Italian verb “sonara” – “to sound.”
For the first time so began to call their works the Spanish composers of the XVI century. Early sonatas were polyphonic, for example trio sonatas for 3 instruments – violins (or flutes), violas and gamba and harpsichord. When the homophonic style replaced the polyphonic style (the main voice with a bright melody began to play a leading role, and the others Continue reading